Lymph node dissection in the left upper lobe: clinical outcomes and surgical techniques in Japan
Pulmonary resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) is a well-known standard treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (1). Promising procedures for early-stage NSCLC, even in segmentectomy with MLND have been reported (2). However, the most significant role of MLND is to help determine precise pathological staging. It has not yet been established whether complete MLND contributes to the improvement of surgical prognosis.